facts & status
FBI Hate Crime Stats
Analysis of the 7,103 single-bias incidents
reported in 2019 revealed that:
- 55.8 percent were motivated by a race/ethnicity/ancestry bias.
- 21.4 percent were prompted by religious bias.
- 16.8 percent resulted from sexual-orientation bias.
- 2.8 percent were motivated by gender-identity bias.
- 2.2 percent were prompted by disability bias.
- 1.0 percent were motivated by gender bias.
In 2019, law enforcement agencies reported that 4,784 single-bias
hate crime offenses were motivated by race/ethnicity/ancestry.
Of these offenses:
- 48.4 percent were motivated by anti-Black or African American bias.
- 15.8 percent stemmed from anti-White bias.
- 14.1 percent were classified as anti-Hispanic or Latino bias.
- 4.3 percent resulted from anti-Asian bias.
- 3.6 percent were a result of bias against groups of individuals consisting of more
than one race (anti-multiple races, group).
- 2.6 percent were motivated by anti-American Indian or Alaska Native bias.
- 2.6 percent were classified as anti-Arab bias.
- 0.5 percent (25 offenses) were motivated by bias of anti-Native Hawaiian or Other
- 8.2 percent were the result of an anti-Other Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry bias.
Of the 8,559 reported hate crime offenses in 2019:
- 25.8 percent were intimidation.
- 25.1 percent were destruction/damage/vandalism.
- 23.6 percent were simple assault.
- 13.5 percent were aggravated assault.
- The remaining offenses included additional crimes against
persons, property, and society.
Drawn from a first-of-its-kind database (the Bias Incidents and Actors Study [BIAS]) on nearly
1,000 violent and nonviolent hate crime offenders in the United States, a new research brief by
the University of Maryland’s National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to
Terrorism (START) shows that offenders vary significantly in terms of motivations, background
and demographic characteristics, criminal histories, and targets.
Hate crimes targeting victims perceived as Latinx and Muslim and/or Arab grew from less than 5
percent in the 1990s to represent nearly a quarter of all attacks combined over the last two
“We are seeing that there is a lot of diversity in terms of who is committing hate crimes
and what their motivations are,” said Michael Jensen, START senior researcher and
lead investigator of the BIAS project. “There is a wide range of prejudices, background
characteristics, educations, and work histories. Their behaviors are diverse too. Not
every offender commits an act of violence; not everyone is part of an organized group.
While some offenders carefully plan their crimes to maximize their impact, others act
without premeditation in response to prejudices that are pervasive in American
Additionally, Asian Americans reported the single biggest increase in serious incidents of online
hate and harassment as racist and xenophobic slurs blaming people of Asian descent for the
coronavirus pandemic spread over the past year, according to a new survey shared exclusively
with USA TODAY.
Some 17% of Asian Americans reported sexual harassment, stalking, physical threats
and other incidents, up from 11% last year. Half of them said the harassment was
spurred by their race or ethnicity, according to the survey from anti-hate group ADL.
Overall, 21% of Asian-American respondents said they were harassed online.
ADL CEO Jonathan Greenblatt says the survey’s findings, which come amid a growing
outcry over the rapid rise in attacks on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
nationwide, show that efforts to curb surging anti-Asian sentiment by social media
platforms like Facebook, Twitter and Google's YouTube have fallen short.
From the Anti-Defamantion League (https://www.adl.org/resources/reports/the-online-hate-
Online communities have been described as the modern public square, a space for opinions to
be expressed and voices to be heard. In reality, though, not everyone has equal access to this
public square, and not everyone has the privilege to speak without fear. Hateful and abusive
online speech forces out other voices; excluding the voices of the marginalized and
underrepresented from public discourse.
The coronavirus pandemic has underscored many long-existing fissures within American
society and one of them is the potential of social media platforms to cause great harm. With
people spending even more time online during this fraught time, it has never been clearer that
while the internet connects people in ways we could not have imagined just 25 years ago, it also
sows hate, harassment and violence, often at warp speed. The people most affected by
conspiracy theories, hate speech and misinformation online tend to be those who live with it
offline, people who have historically faced heightened levels of discrimination and bigotry.
These users do not feel safe online. This survey shows that the widespread abuse on social
media platforms intensifies their struggles.
Big technology companies have taken only piecemeal approaches to solving the problems of
hate and harassment on their platforms because their business models thrive off them. The
more hate that exists on a platform, the longer users stay, and the higher the advertising dollars.
Substantive regulation may be finally coming and for people of color, religious and sexual
minorities, and women, it is overdue.
Fully 59% of African-Americans reported they were harassed online because of their race
in this year’s survey, a sharp increase from 42% last year. There was no statistically
significant change in race-based harassment overall, 28% this year from 25% last year.
Harassment based on religion did not change, remaining at 21%.
Respondents said they were targeted as a result of their occupation (14%), disability
(12%), or sexual orientation (10%).
31% of Jewish respondents reported they felt they were targeted with hateful content
because of their religion, a notable decrease from 43% reported last year.
45% LGBTQ+ respondents reported harassment based on their sexual orientation,
comparable to the 48% reported last year. The percentages are still dismayingly high.
Women also experienced harassment disproportionately, as 35% of female-identified
respondents felt they were targeted because of their gender, no significant change from
last year’s survey (37%).
Nearly half (49%) of all who reported being harassed believed that their political views
drove at least part of the harassment, a decrease compared to 55% the previous year.
33% of respondents reported harassment due to their physical appearance, not a
significant change from the 35% reported last year.
Teaching emotional intelligence to promote tolerance and empathy:
Empathy is key to recognizing, managing and positively responding to online hate.
Nursing scholar Theresa Wiseman defined four key qualities of empathy, all of which
play an important role in tackling hate speech online: Perspective taking – being able to
see the world as others see it by actively listening to and acknowledging their point of
view. Avoiding judgement – Being non-judgmental about a person's situation.
Recognizing emotions – Identifying and understanding another person's emotions, which
can only be achieved by first understanding our own emotions. Communicating emotions
– Connecting with another person to let them know they are not alone is key and
requires effective communication.